Plasmapheresis is an extracorporeal transfusion technique designed to separate the blood into plasma and its featured elements. This technique removes the pathologic elements from the blood and body.
Plasmapheresis has a complex detoxification, re-correction and immune-correction effect on the body.
The detoxification effect is achieved by eliminating and biologically transforming the pathologic substrate, thus “unlocking” the biological detoxification system.
The re-correction is achieved by decreasing the viscosity of the blood, by increasing plasticity and decreasing the aggregation of the blood cells.
Immune-correction is achieved by removing antigens, the antibodies of the immunocirculating complexes, cytokines, immunocompetent cells, and by “unlocking” the immune system.
Therapeutic plasmapheresis has extensive clinical applicability and is used in complex treatments, concurrently with the drug therapy. Therapeutic plasmapheresis treats approximately 150 types of illnesses from medical branches such as: obstetrics, gynecology, narcology, resuscitation, treatment of autoimmune diseases, dermatology, pediatrics, and emergency and disaster medicine.
The benefits of the procedure and of membrane plasmapheresis
Therapeutic plasmapheresis is done automatically and is very safe. The patient is very comfortable during the procedure and the device is portable.
There can be no deterioration of the blood’s elements during the procedure due to the physiological properties of the separation membranes. The extracorporeal circuit has a low filling volume (65 ml). The procedure may also be performed under critical and unstable hemodynamic conditions. Plasmapheresis reduces the pathogenic elements in the blood by 70%. It mitigates the risk of “cross” blood transfusion. The procedure presents no risk of contamination by the environmental air or risk of blood poisoning. Therapeutic plasmapheresis may also be used in pediatrics and neonatology.
The benefits of membrane plasmapheresis
- It reduces blood viscosity and the risk of thrombi, preventing thrombosis;
- It improves the blood flow to organs and tissues, it corrects the functions of the affected organs;
- It reduces the size of atheroma plaques and restores blood flow in the blood vessels, eliminates the risk of amputation of the lower limbs;
- It reduces blood pressure;
- It eliminates from the blood the waste produced by viruses and bacteria, and improves the retrogression of the disease;
- It purifies the blood of antibodies and immunocirculating complexes;
- It reduces the intensity of clinical symptoms and exacerbation signs;
- It increases the remission period of autoimmune and allergic illnesses;
- It enhances sensitivity to medication and significantly decreases the doses of medical preparations (including hormonal and cytotoxic preparations) ;
- It purifies the blood and tissues of the accumulated toxic and harming substances;
- It helps with the rejuvenation of the entire body.
Substances removed from the blood after filtering the plasma
Low and very low-density lipoproteins – the cholesterol responsible for the formation of atheroma plaques;
Triglycerides – their excessive presence is associated with lipids and the metabolism of fats;
Fibrinogen and its synthesis byproducts – thrombogenic factor;
Villebranta factor, the C1 and C3 complements components – substances that accompany the deterioration of blood vessels in various vasculites, diabetes;
Immunocirculating complexes – antibodies’ connection to antigens, “fragments” of bacteria that migrate across the body and localize in the renal tissues and blood vessel walls, causing autoimmune reactions;
Immunoglobulins, cryoglobulins and antibodies – modified immunoglobulines, including antibodies that contribute to the occurrence of autoimmune diseases, the destruction of own tissues, the obstruction of capillary vessels, etc.;
Fibronectin – when in excess, it contributes to the binding of cells.
Plasmapheresis helps in the following conditions
Diatheses in children: atopic dermatitis, neurodermatitis, eczemas, Lyell’s syndrome.
Allergies: rinosinusopathy, conjunctivitis
Allergic vasculitis: Cherga-Strauss syndrome, Wissler-Fanconi subseptic condition.
- Autoimmune diseases
Systemic lupus erythematosus
Skin diseases (psoriasis, pemphigus, scleroderma, dermatomyositis)
Nervous system diseases (multiple sclerosis, myasthenia gravis, Guillain-Barre syndrome, polyneuropathy, ischemic attack)
Mental illnesses (schizophrenia – febrile catatonia, drug-resilient neuroleptic syndrome, Alzheimer’s disease)
- “Build-up” diseases
Tumor illnesses (chemoradiotherapy)
Substance abuse (alcoholism, narcotics addiction)
Tuberculosis (antibiotic-induced hepato- and nephrotoxicity, chronic intoxication, amiloidosis)
Exogenous chronic intoxication (environment, industry, agriculture)
Irradiation disease (radionuclides)
Graft versus host disease
Graft rejection reaction
ABO incompatibility reaction
Early pregnancy, pre-eclampsia, HELLP syndrome
Latent genital infections
Ecology and pregnancy
Miscarriage (recurrent miscarriage, antiphospholipid syndrome)
Infertility (Isoimmunization to sperm)
Disseminated intravascular coagulation and bleeding
Endometritis and septic complications
Therapeutic plasmapheresis is not recommended in the following cases:
Organic alterations of the nervous and cardiovascular systems
Anemia (Hemoglobin below 90 g/l)
Hypoproteinemia (total protein below 55 g/l)
Failure to access the vein
Allergic reactions to anticoagulants, colloids and protein preparations